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Brain Food: The Connection Between Nutrition and Cognitive Health

Cognitive function refers to a set of mental abilities that enable us to process information, think, learn, reason, remember, and make decisions. These cognitive abilities are essential for performing everyday tasks, interacting with others, and navigating daily life. Our brain is like the command centre of the body. Not only does it govern our cognitive abilities, emotions, and behaviours it’s also responsible for sending signals round our bodies to control all our physiological needs. To ensure our brains can run at optimal levels it needs the correct nutrition.

Just as we nourish our bodies with wholesome foods to promote physical health, our dietary choices profoundly impact the structure and function of our brains. From infancy to old age, the nutrients we consume play a pivotal role in shaping cognitive development, preserving mental acuity, and mitigating the risk of age-related decline. Lets discuss how good nutrition can support brain health.

Understanding Cognitive Function

Cognitive function encompasses a broad range of mental processes that enable us to perceive, understand, and interact with the world around us. Below we have broken down 10 abilities that cognitive function is responsible for:  


Is the ability to understand, store, and retrieve information. It includes short-term memory, which allows us to hold information temporarily, and long-term memory, which involves the ability to recall information over long periods of time. 


Refers to the ability to focus on specific tasks while ignoring distractions. It enables us to concentrate on tasks, sustain mental effort, and shift our focus as needed.

Executive Function 

Encompasses a set of higher-level cognitive processes that control  goal-directed behaviour, planning, organisation, problem-solving, inhibition, and self-regulation. It allows us to set priorities, manage time effectively, and adapt to changing circumstances.

Language and Communication 

Is the ability to comprehend and produce spoken and written language. This includes understanding vocabulary, sentences, and grammar, as well as expressing thoughts and ideas effectively.


Involves the interpretation of sensory information from the world around us including visual, auditory, tactile, taste, and smell. It enables us to make sense of our surroundings and detect patterns, shapes, and objects.

Spatial Awareness and Navigation 

Is the ability to perceive and navigate distances, directions, and spatial layouts. It enables us to navigate our environment, orient ourselves, and create mental maps.

Problem-Solving and Decision Making 

Involves the ability to identify, analyse, and solve problems by applying logical reasoning and critical thinking skills. Decision making entails evaluating options and choosing the most appropriate course of action based on the  information available


Is the ability to come up with novel ideas, solutions, and insights. It encompasses the ability to think innovatively, make connections between concepts, and approach problems from unconventional angles.

Social cognition 

Refers to the ability to understand and interpret social cues, emotions, intentions, and beliefs in oneself and others. It underpins interpersonal communication, empathy, and perspective-taking.

Emotional regulation 

Involves the ability to recognize, understand, and manage one's own emotions as well as the emotions of others. It enables individuals to cope with stress, regulate mood, and maintain emotional well-being.

Overall, cognitive function is a complex construct that encompasses a wide range of mental processes essential for  functioning and successful navigation of daily life. It is integral to virtually every aspect of human experience, from learning and problem-solving to social interaction and emotional regulation.

Red apples

The Role of Nutrition in Brain Health

Nutrients play a crucial role in shaping the structure and function of the brain, influencing cognitive processes, mood regulation, and overall mental well-being. Below we have broken down various nutrients and their role in brain health.


Spinach leaves

In particular EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), are essential for brain health. They contribute to the structural integrity of cell membranes in the brain and play a critical role in synaptic function, neurotransmitter signalling, and neuroplasticity. Intake of omega-3 fatty acids has been associated with improved cognitive function, memory, and mood regulation. Foods high in omega-3s are fish like salmon and mackeral, chia seeds, flaxseeds, walnuts, brussell sprouts and spinach.


Antioxidants, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and flavonoids, help protect the brain from oxidative stress and inflammation, which are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinsons, and cognitive decline. These compounds neutralise free radicals and reduce cellular damage, promoting brain health and preserving cognitive function. Foods high in antioxidants are apples, avocados, berries, cabbage, broccoli and nuts.

B Vitamins 

Eggs in a tray

B vitamins such as folate (vitamin B9), vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, are essential for various neurological processes, including neurotransmitter synthesis and DNA repair. Deficiencies in these vitamins have been linked to cognitive impairment, mood disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Foods high in B vitamins are salmon, leafy greens, eggs, chicken, lean red meat and legumes.

Vitamin D 

Vitamin D plays a crucial role in brain development, neuroprotection, and neurotransmitter synthesis. Adequate vitamin D levels have been associated with better cognitive function, while deficiencies have been linked to cognitive decline, depression, and an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases. Foods high in vitamin D are fish like samlon and mackerel, egg yolks and wild mushrooms.



Minerals such as iron, zinc, magnesium, and selenium are essential for optimal brain function. Iron is necessary for oxygen transport and energy metabolism in the brain, while zinc plays a role in synaptic transmission and neurogenesis. Magnesium is involved in neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity, and selenium acts as an antioxidant, protecting against oxidative damage. Foods high in minerals are brazil nuts, pumpkin seeds, broccoli, kale, cabbage, avocados, yoghurt and cheese.

Amino Acids 

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and neurotransmitters in the brain. Essential amino acids like tryptophan are precursors to neurotransmitters such as serotonin, which helps regulate mood and sleep. Tyrosine and phenylalanine are precursors to dopamine and norepinephrine, which play roles in motivation, reward, and attention. Foods high in essential amino acids are lean red meat, chicken, eggs, quinoa, chia seeeds and tofu.

Overall, a balanced diet rich in nutrients is essential for maintaining brain structure and function, supporting cognitive abilities, and reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases and mental health disorders. Consuming a variety of nutrient-dense foods, including fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats, is key to nourishing the brain and optimising mental well-being.

If you are ready to get 1-1 nutrition support by Registered Dietitian's, book a free discovery call to find out how Nutrition and Co's specialist dietitian's can help you achieve that.

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1 Comment

han gu
han gu
Jun 18

留学生可以根据自己的需求选择合适的服务套餐,并利用优惠活动节省费用。在选择留学生代写 服务时,留学生应注重价格与质量的平衡。过低的价格可能意味着低质量的服务,而过高的价格未必能保证更好的质量。留学生应根据自己的实际需求,选择性价比较高的服务。

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